BOILED SAUSAGE

Basic Material:

Meat material
Fatty material
Drinking water (ice)
Salt with / without nitrite

What we can offer you:

Cutter processing aids
Emulsifiers
Reddening aids
Fresh keeper
Emulsions and protein substitutes
Spices
Flavourings
Taste refiner
Casings
Other ingredients

Basic Material:

 

Meat material
Fatty material
Drinking water (ice)
Salt with / without nitrite

What we can offer you:

Cutter processing aids
Emulsifiers
Reddening aids
Fresh keeper
Emulsions and protein substitutes
Spices
Flavourings
Taste refiner
Casings
Other ingredients

Boiled sausage technology

Problems • Causes • Solutions

Boiled sausage smooth and coarse • Boiled sausage with coarse inlay • small boiled sausages • Semidry produce • Bratwurst • e.g. white produce

Topic focus: Choice of material, choice of preparation, cutter technology, smoking and cooking technology, storage.
Boiled sausages are the most widely consumed meat products in Europe. In their production, raw meat is first wholly or partially unlocked with the addition of water or ice, and then the muscle protein is completely or partially clotted by heat treatment (scalding, frying, baking or any other way). This creates a solid structure that gives the sausage a firm consistency. They consist of finely chopped large and small-caliber sausages and boiled sausages with coarse inlay. These variations can be found in the cold cuts as well as in the sausage segment.

1. Sorting of materials (fat and lean meat separately)

2. Select raw material, assemble batches and store in a cool place until use

3. Pre-salt and tumble the inlay material (lean meat), if necessary, the day before production ; freeze the bacon material (semi-durable products)

4. When shredding, it is essential to ensure that all blades (grinder/cutter) are always sharp and that temperatures are maintained

5. When filling the mass, do not fill too quickly/impactly (Pre-treat intestines correctly)

6. Reddening usually at +55°C / drying usually at +56°C to +65°C

7. Brewing is usually carried out at +75°C up to a core temperature of 72°C; then cool in cold water

8. Storage usually at +2°C to +4°C (unsmoked goods); store at +4°C to +15°C (smoked goods)

Preserve freshness

Expectations to fresh meat

The EU Regulation defines fresh meat as meat that has been refrigerated, frozen or quickly frozen for preservation purposes only. It also includes vacuum-packed meat or meat wrapped in a controlled atmosphere. However, this does not take into account the age, appearance, microbiological status or the texture. The consumer‘s expectations of fresh meat go beyond the definition of the legal text. Characteristics of fresh meat are:
• colour light pink (pork, poultry) to light red (beef)
• typical, fresh, weak, almost neutral, slightly acidic smell
(the pH value of fresh meat is usually in slightly acidic range, pH 5.5 – 5.7)
• no bruises
• high degree of elasticity in the meat
• light coloured, almost white fatty tissue (except in the case of corn fed poulards)

Risk of spoilt meat

Bacteria and germs are omnipresent in our environment – they are part of our lives. Moreover, without certain microorganisms, we would not be able to survive because they perform important functions in the human body. However, some species of such genera are also responsible for the spoilage of food. Therefore, it should be our primary goal in meat processing, on the one hand to exclude these microorganisms, in other words not let them come near the meat in the first place, and secondly prevent their reproduction.

Meat in the living organism of a healthy animal is practically free from bacteria. Only by slaughter do the first germs reach the meat through mechanical influences on the carcass.

To keep this factor low:
• Hygiene in the extraction and processing of fresh meat is a top priority.
• Temperature is an important factor to guarantee freshness for longer. The carcass is warm and the ph value is high because it has not yet been lowered due to meat maturation. After slaughter, cool the carcass immediately to inhibit the propagation of microorganisms.

Hygiene and temperature are the top priority even during cutting, in order to prevent further contamination with
microorganisms. Learn more about FRISCHIN®, the fresh keepers in our range, on one of the following pages.

Graph: Development of the bacterial count in raw, untreated meat.

Graph: Development of the PH value in raw, untreated meat.

Cutter process

In the following pages we will introduce the most important cutter methods.

We recommend our BINDUS® process

• Grind the meat and the fat separately with the 3-mm blade before putting into the cutter.
• Briefly chop the lean meat in the cutter together with the salt.
• Add all technological ingredients at a temperature of over 0 °C and leave in the cutter for another 5 rounds without adding liquid.
• Add two thirds of the ice and chop in the cutter to a temperature of 4 °C.
• Add the pork cheeks and the bacon and chop in, add the rest of the ice and the spices at 8 °C and chop to a temperature of around 10 °C.

Lean sausage meat process

• Chop the meat and fat separately with the 3 mm blade before cutting (depending on the technical equipment of the cutter).
• Briefly with no liquid added, chop the lean meat together with all ingredients for about 5 rounds. (Spices can also be added at the end of the chopping process).
• Slowly add two thirds of the ice and chop at a high blade speed up to a temperature of 4 ° C.
• Add the fat and chop it in, then add the remaining ice and chop it to a temperature of approximately 10 ° C.
• Then air the sausage meat at slow blade speed down to a cutter temperature of 12 °C max.

All sausage meat process

• Grind the well cooled meat and the fat together with a 3-mm blade.
• Chop the pre-ground meat and fat for about five rounds with all ingredients without added liquid.
• Then gradually add two thirds of the ice and chop to a temperature of 5 °C.
• Add the rest of the ice and chop to a temperature of 10 °C.
• Then air the sausage meat at slow blade speed down to a temperature of 12 °C has been reached.

Cutter process for semi dry sausages

• Briefly chop the lean meat for making the lean sausage together with all ingredients without adding liquid.
• Add the ice gradually and chop until you have solid lean sausage meat.
• Final cutter temperature 6 – 8 °C.
• Add the frozen bellies (or bacon) and chop to the desired grain size; continue mixing until the mixture is cohesive (it is essential to use firm inlay material to avoid smearing in the final product).

Cutter process for boiled sausages with coarse grained inlay

• The Inlay material is pre-salted and pre-treated with FILLFIT® or FARBFEST® Rubin.
• According to the final grain size, the inlay material is ground with a suitable blade (rule of thumb: final grain size + 2 mm = mm cutter blade size).
• The smooth sausage meat is produced as described above.
• The prepared inlay material is chopped together with the smooth sausage meat to achieve the desired final grain size. The missing spices are also added during this step.

Possible mistakes in production

Problems and causes

Here we introduce possible dangers and mistakes in the manufacturing process and how to avoid them.

Choice of raw material, sorting, combination of recipes

• Too little connective tissue (in the case of lean meat or with fatty material): the sausage gets too soft, does not have good bite, possible deposits of fat or jelly.
• Too much connective tissue (lean meat or fatty material), too many rinds have been used, too little material is used: rubbery bite, small sausages have a tendency to burst (bratwursts), deposits of fat or jelly.
• Raw material has been used that was stored for too long, that is contaminated microbiologically or that has been pre-salted for too long: Insufficient colour retention, green spots in the air bubbles, skin bust due to gas formation of bacteria, especially in sausages,
musty, taste and smell not fresh, sour smell and taste, product is spoilt.
• Too little meat or too much fat has been used: deposits of jelly, but above all fat, outside or inside colour too light, drops of fat on the casing and therefore stains of the sausage, bite too soft, too greasy.
• Material badly sorted (dangerous in the case of inlay material): coarse inlays separate from the sausage meat (e.g. chunks in beer ham with too much fat or sinews near the edge), deposits of fat or jelly, above all around the coarse inlays.
• Too much water or too much ice: soft, spongy bite or consistency, jelly deposits, sausages develop wrinkles, bratwursts disintegrate when they are being fried.
• Too much lean meat or too much beef: smoke colour too dark, colour of sausage meat too dark, rubbery bite, dry, crumbly texture, above all with small sausages and bratwurst; many burst in the pan, especially in connection with excessive bulk volume.
• Standardization not complied with: All of the aforementioned technological errors can occur if the recipe is inaccurate. Water, fat and BEFFE values cannot be met exactly.

Preparation, combination of the technological ingredients and spices

• Addition of agents to lower the pH value when pre-salting or when the material is left to sit for too long : jelly or fat deposits under the skin, falling out of inlays, short sausage meat, bite not good, too soft, break-off, bratwurst and small sausages have not bite because emulsifiers like OPTIPRALL® and OPTIPRALL® forte have not been used. This also causes strong frying out of bratwurst in the pan or on the BBQ.
• Unclear or unbalanced, non-standardized spice mixture has been used: One overpowering flavour (too many or too few individual spices), stale taste after using too many similar spices.
• Use of wrong / too many additional substances: Sweetish, unpleasant taste, browning of bratwursts too strong or not good when put into the pan or on the BBQ.
• Use of bad quality casings: Sausages burst, small sausages get soft too quickly, spotty sausages through the use of overlapping casings, sausages have a musty smell.

Preparatory jobs

• Inlay material not properly pretreated (wrong additives, not tumbled): Jelly deposits in the corners and around the inlays (due to not tumbling long enough, or due to the use of pH lowering agents), gray spots in larger pieces (reddening time too short).
• Fatty material for semi-dry products was not selected and prepared correctly: Only use grainy material and freeze slightly, otherwise smearing under the surface of the casing can occur. In addition, you may end up with an unclear, smeared cut.

Chopping technology

• The meat is too warm at the beginning of the chopping process, not chopped enough, the fatty material added too late: The built-up system (binding, emulsion, dispersion), boiled sausage meat is not stable, fat and jelly deposits occur (activation of the protein too low) specks remain visible in the sausage meat.
• Sausage meat overchopped or the end temperatures are too high; the chopping blade is too blunt: Soft consistency through overchopping, the sausage meat is dull and not shiny and so is the cut in the final product, wrinkling especially in small sausages, uneven color, blotchiness in small sausages, as the fat sweats out during smoking and drying.
• Vacuum too high in the vacuum chopper: rubbery bite, sausage too firm (structure can possibly be improved through re-gassing).
• Incorrect incorporation of coarse inlays: inlay falls out due to excessive temperature differences, inlay is not mixed in for long enough, therefore pieces can fall out, the final grain consistency was not made in the cutter. Due to the lack of cohesion many mistakes can occur, but especially excessively soft consistency, with bratwurst sausage disintegration of the sausages on the BBQ can be observed.
• Unhygienic conditions during chopping: In principle, the same errors occur as when using overlaid raw material.

Filling

• Too much pressure on the sausage meat during filling, filling happens too fast: Deposits of jelly and fat, fat sweats out of small sausages.
• Material is left to sit for too long before or after filling: Deposits of jelly and fat through bacterial activity. Hyperacidity of the sausage meat due to lactobacilli, poor color retention,
pink coloration or red core due to degradation of the natural nitrate content from water or condiments (in the case of white goods).
• Filling pressure too low: Wrinkly casing, jelly deposit under the skin.
• Filling pressure too high: Sausages burst, especially in connection with recipes that contain a lot of connective tissue.
• Particles of the machine end up in the sausage meat (e.g. grinder, cutter, filler): black specks in the cut.

Scalding, reddening, smoking, cooking

• Heat treatment too long or at excessive temperatures: Deposits of fat or jelly, especially in the case of sausages with coarse inlays, wrinkly, tough casings due to overlong drying at high temperatures, the skin will burst.
• Heat treatment too short or at insufficient core temperatures: Inadequate reddening and poor colour retention (reddening depends on the core temperature reached, the core temperature for cooked sausages should be 72 °C), lack of redness due to reddening times that are too short or nonexistent, or at insufficient temperatures (at approx. 50 °C), green spots in the air bubbles, acidic taste through active acid binder. Product spoils, pink core or slight redness in white goods due to nitrate-reducing microorganisms still alive.
• Problems that arise due to inadequate drying and smoking of sausages: Casing becomes very wrinkly or tough due to excessive drying or excessively hot smoking, stripy or blotchy small sausages due to bad drying (climate too humid, drying time too short, sausages hang too close together, uneven moisture and temperature distribution), mottling due to drops of water on the casing (smoke particles can dissolve in the water, which then form the dark spots). Temperatures too hot during drying and smoking (fat sweats out, colour too dark or too light due to time of smoking too long or too short), musty odor due to the use of moist sawdust.

Particularities in the use of frozen meat

• Microorganisms can propagate fast during defrosting.
• As a rule the meat must be defrosted before processing.
• Incorrect thawing of lean meat can seriously affect its technological properties.
• A relatively high loss of weight due to drip fluid and evaporation is to be expected.
• On no account use the drip fluid, as it is microbiologically highly contaminated.
• Meat that was frozen slowly should also be defrosted slowly; quick frozen meat on the other hand should be defrosted fast.

Dictionary of ingredients boiled sausage

Ascorbate / ascorbic acid

The salt of ascorbic acid and the ascorbic acid itself serve as reducing agents, thus accelerating and stabilizing the reaction between nitrite and muscle dye. This leads to a pronounced reddening. Incidentally, they have antioxidant activity.

Boiled sausage emulsifiers

The boiled sausage is a „multiphase system“, i. boiled sausage is not simply a solution of substances, a gel or an emulsion. Rather, the boiled sausage is a mixture of all these types of binding, in which the emulsion-like bond is in the foreground. In order to improve this emulsion part in the boiled sausage, boiled sausage emulsifiers (such as OPTIPRALL® or
OPTIPRALL® forte) are very helpful as they greatly facilitate the distribution and fixation of fat in water.

Cutter processing aids

The salts of organic edible acids such as lactate, tartrate, acetate and citrate. The citrate is the only salt of organic acids that has become established as a cutting aid. This affects the increase of the ionic strength, as well as the complex formation with calcium and magnesium. It thus improves the water binding capacity.

Monosodium glutamate

Commonly referred to simply as glutamate. This technological ingredient is the salt of glutamic acid found in many natural products. Glutamate has virtually no taste in itself. It opens the taste buds on the tongue and thus provides a stronger taste sensation. To supplement the benefits of glutamate, we recommend the rounded GLUTESSA® series of complete preparations.

Phosphate

The phosphates, salts of phosphoric acid, act through three different mechanisms:
• Increase of the pH value
• Increase of the ionic strength
• Specific effects
These three effects are very different depending on the type of phosphate. All three, however, serve to improve the water-binding capacity in the boiled sausage.

Cutter aids for boiled sausage production

Cutter aids are used in the food industry and in butcher shops when chopping meat in a cutter in order to influence the properties of the sausage meat being made. Cutter aids are salts that activate the meat protein so that it can develop an emulsion. Cutter aids can contain auxiliary substances like redding agents, emulsifiers, colorants and/or hydrocolloids for support.

MEISTERMIX®
Phosphate cutter aid, pure technology – without taste,
because you determine this individually. The FARBFEST®
redding power is included. The MEISTERMIX®
brand also includes cutter aids with integrated spices
(compounds). These can be found in the category of
boiled sausage spices and seasonings.

WURSTQUICK®
Phosphate cutter aid that makes life easy. Here the
active ingredient is already dissolved and can act
directly. WURSTQUICK® is available on a phosphate
or citrate basis. Traditionally with reddening or as Fry
WURSTQUICK® without reddening.

BINDUS®
In this series, „natural“ is all important (no declaration),
because other forces are at work here. Patented
by MOGUNTIA without phosphate. In the B-Combi
spice compounds, the power of Bindus is combined
with the perfect seasoning.

PERFEKTIN®
Phosphate cutter aid, perfect without reddening. This
is where the pure phosphate acts and if desired as a
PE product with emulsifier. Is it based on phosphate
or citrate.

Redding and colour for reddened meat products

In a classic boiled sausage, with the exception of the „white products“, the consumer expects a red pickle color. Conventionally, this is formed by the pickling process with the decomposition product nitrogen oxide from the nitrite pickling salt. To accelerate the pickling process, the antioxidant ascorbic acid and its derivatives are used. These products are called reddening aids. At MOGUNTIA we know of two classes of reddening aids.

FARBFEST®
products are based on ascorbic acid and accelerate nitrate removal. Some of them are also combined with citric acid and other auxiliary agents to improve their effectiveness.

FARBFEST Rubin®
products on the other hand contain the salt of ascorbic acid and have a moderate rate of nitrite degradation. This is especially important in the pre-curing of meat to prevent deflagration of the nitrogen oxide.

RUBINAL®
For the extra color of reddened sausages. This gives the sausage the attractiveness and color stability it deserves. Even in strong light, the sausage retains its beautiful red color.

Emulsifiers for boiled sausages

Emulsifiers like mono- and diglycerides are used in liver sausage and boiled sausage for emulsion support and work in combination with the protein contained or in conjunction with cutter aids. On the other hand, vegetable-based protein and fiber preparations (SAFTEX® group) can also emulsify without meat protein. These are used for the production of pre-emulsions.

OPTIPRALL®
Gives extra binding to the boiled sausage. The emulsifiers are the icing on the cake. They give extra security and ensure the perfect bite.

OPTIPRALL® CL pur
The boiled sausage optimizer does this without any declarable additives.

Freshness extenders for meat and meat cuts

Despite all care, compliance with hygiene standards and a continuous cold chain, it is not possible to prevent the contamination of the meat with germs. That is why MOGUNTIA has developed the FRISCHIN® range. By using the FRISCHIN® products, the user has advantages throughout the entire product range.

FRISCHIN®
Due to its specific composition, FRISCHIN® inhibits the growth of undesirable microorganisms over a prolonged period. Prolonged freshness and shelf life are the result. Due to its composition of natural edible acids, FRISCHIN® rounds off the fresh taste of your sausages and significantly improves colour retention.

Emulsions and protein substitutes

Emulsions, or more specifically, preemulsions, are used to put processing materials and foodstuffs into a state that makes production possible. As a result, it is also possible to prepare vegetable fat and protein substances, and also those in non-conventional
animal form (for example flare fat and kidney fat), in such a way that they correspond to processability similar to that of a common bacon material. The same applies to animal and vegetable proteins.

SAFTEX®
represents the group of functional saccharides. From monosaccharides (dextrose) to polysaccharides (fiber and fibers). Depending on the application, these products can be used for the pre-emulsion, as synarase blocker, to give structure, for fiber enrichment or to increase the water binding capacity.

Fatbinder
This, in contrast, offers the perfect basis for all types of pre-emulsions, in particular meat, chicken skin and fat emulsions and for the production of fat and meat substitutes.

Spices and compounds

Well balanced spice mixtures and flavouring preparations for all questions of traditional and modern boiled sausage production without technology. For highest flexibility.

AROMAL®
The series with the perfect symbiosis of spice flavors and phosphate-supported technology and that at only 5g / kg application. Taste combined with technological ingredients for maximum convenience and safety.

AROMAL® extra
Extra-compounds with enhanced flavor, which last longer, through selected spice extracts – as required by the consumer. At only 5g / kg application.

JUWEL®
The balanced composition of spice aromas, fine raw spices and matching technology combines modernity and classic taste, at only 7g / kg application.

MEISTERMIX®
Uncompromising quality and natural taste are combined here. With 10g / kg application the true performance miracle – with integrated phosphate cutter aid and selected raw spices.

Prima-series
Top spice technology compounds for your best sausage with good price-performance ratio – with only 10g / kg application.

60er
This compound series is the boiled sausage class with added functionality, for the additional yield you need for your calculation.

Flavour enhancers for an even better taste

Flavour enhancers are the feng shui of meat processing. They create the harmony of taste without appearing dominant themselves.
Flavour enhancers
• give a full and rounded taste
• create a harmonic taste profile
• make you use less salt
• shape the taste profile (by complementing with smoke (SMOOX®), garlic and other flavours)
• conceal foreign influences, for example in the processing of MDM meat or emulsions.

GLUTESSA®
Combines all flavour enhancers based on monosodium glutamate. For a perfect taste.

AROSTAR®
Flavour enhancer without glutamate. For best taste with highest naturalness.