COOKED SAUSAGE

Basic Material:

Meat material
Fatty material
Drinking water (ice)
Salt with / without nitrite

What we can offer you:

Cutter processing aids
Emulsifiers
Reddening agents
Fresh keeper
Emulsions and protein substitutes
Spices
Flavourings
Taste refiner
Casings
Other ingredients

Basic Material:

 

Meat material
Fatty material
Drinking water (ice)
Salt with / without nitrite

What we can offer you:

Cutter processing aids
Emulsifiers
Reddening agents
Fresh keeper
Emulsions and protein substitutes
Spices
Flavourings
Taste refiner
Casings
Other ingredients

Cooked sausage technology

The term cooked sausage is understood to mean products in which the starting material is predominantly
pre-cooked.
The consistency varies as well as the colour, the appearance and the composition. On the market a variety of different
cooked sausage are on offer.
The various cooked sausage differ in:
• Methods of production
• Structure
• Size of inlay
• Type of casing
• Calibre

However, basically they fall into the following main groups:

Liver sausage

Kochwurst

Black pudding

Blutwurst Kreis

Brawn

Sülzwurst Kreis

Production technology liver sausage

1. Choose raw material, Compile batches

2. Inject meat material with NPS saline (good red curing colour)

3. Cook material at core temp. 65°C, 90°C cooking temperatur

4. Mince all of the material (Liver not scalded)

5. Add all ingredients and mix well

6. Fill into casings (Temp. min. 40°C)

7. Cook at 75 – 80 °C to core temp. 72 – 75 °C

8. Let cool in clear water

9. Possibly smoke cold not above 25°C

10. Store at temperatures around 1°C

1. Choose raw material, Compile batches

2. Inject meat material with NPS saline (good red curing colour)

3. Cut the liver with all of the nitrite and FARBFEST®. Take the liver out of the cutter

4. Cook material at core temp. 65°C, 90°C cooking temperatur

5. Chop the meat in the cutter, add broth

6. Add all ingredients including emulsifier, add the fat and chop up. Work in broth in the cutter

7. Add liver (Temp. < 50°C) and completely emulsify the entire mass

8. Fill into casings (Temp. min. 40°C).

9. Cook at 75 – 80 °C to core temp. 72 – 75 °C.

10. Let cool in clear water, possibly smoke cold not above 25°C, Store at temperatures around 1°C

Production technology black pudding

1. Choose material, Combile batches

2. Inject meat for inlay (yield!) Cook ct 65°C, cut into cubes and pre-mince, mix spices and ingredients with the coarse inlay

3. Boil the rinds well (not too soft), cut fresh bacon into cubes, scald and separate.

4. Finely cut rinds, add blood and salt (< 45°C) and cut up completely

5. Mix salt, fine and coarse ingredients (40 – 50°C)

6. Fill, not too cold (> 40°C)

7. Cook up to ct 72 – 75°C at approx. 80°C

8. Cool in cold water, drain well

9. Possibly smoke (under 25°C)

10. Store at temperatures < 4°C

Production technology brawn

1. Choose material, compile batches.

2. Scald rinds for white rind mash or as an addition to the aspic.

3. Cure the pieces of meat (yield!) ct 65°C.

4. Mince the rinds and add broth

5. Precook, cut into cubes or stripes

6. Mix everything including spices

7. Fill or skewer with aspic (hot)

8. Possibly cook to the end in case of natural aspic

9. Cool and turn while cooling / store > 4°C, min. 16 hours.

1. Choose material, compile batches

2. Put out vegetables and other chunky ingredients

3. Prepare the ingredients, choose the appropriate gelantine

4. Rinse with clear water

5. Produce a clear and gelantine solution

6. Fill coarse inlays into casings (hot)

7. Fill or skewer with aspic (hot)

8. Possibly cook to the end in case of natural aspic

9. Cool and turn while cooling / store > 4°C, min. 16 hours

Preserve freshness

Expectations to fresh meat

The EU Regulation defines fresh meat as meat that has been refrigerated, frozen or quickly frozen for preservation purposes only. It also includes vacuum-packed meat or meat wrapped in a controlled atmosphere. However, this does not take into account the age, appearance, microbiological status or the texture. The consumer‘s expectations of fresh meat go beyond the definition of the legal text. Characteristics of fresh meat are:
• colour light pink (pork, poultry) to light red (beef)
• typical, fresh, weak, almost neutral, slightly acidic smell
(the pH value of fresh meat is usually in slightly acidic range, pH 5.5 – 5.7)
• no bruises
• high degree of elasticity in the meat
• light coloured, almost white fatty tissue (except in the case of corn fed poulards)

Risk of spoilt meat

Bacteria and germs are omnipresent in our environment – they are part of our lives. Moreover, without certain microorganisms, we would not be able to survive because they perform important functions in the human body. However, some species of such genera are also responsible for the spoilage of food. Therefore, it should be our primary goal in meat processing, on the one hand to exclude these microorganisms, in other words not let them come near the meat in the first place, and secondly prevent their reproduction.

 

Meat in the living organism of a healthy animal is practically free from bacteria. Only by slaughter do the first germs reach the meat through mechanical influences on the carcass.
To keep this factor low:
• Hygiene in the extraction and processing of fresh meat is a top priority.
• Temperature is an important factor to guarantee freshness for longer. The carcass is warm and the ph value is high because it has not yet been lowered due to meat maturation. After slaughter, cool the carcass immediately to inhibit the propagation of microorganisms.

Hygiene and temperature are the top priority even during cutting, in order to prevent further contamination with microorganisms. Learn more about FRISCHIN®, the fresh keepers in our range, on the following pages.

Graph: Development of the bacterial count in raw, untreated meat.

Graph: Development of the PH value in raw, untreated meat.

Liver sausage

Problems • Causes • Solutions

Heat-treated sausages, which are mainly made of cooked starting material, are called spreadable cooked sausages. The consistency in the cooled state is determined by coherent coagulated liver tissue and solidified fat. Cooked spreadable sausages containing over 10% liver are referred to as liver sausages.
Here we introduce possible dangers and mistakes in the manufacturing process and how to avoidthem.

Choice of raw materials

Meat and liver not freshly slaughtered:
• Deviation in flavour: Freshly slaughtered meat gives the best flavour.
• Deposits of fat or jelly: Because overlaid liver loses emulsifying power (freeze liver as fresh as possible without bile ducts).
If no freshly slaughtered material can be used, it must be cooled well directly after the slaughter and then be processed very quickly. Highly contaminated material (cutting hygiene, defrosting, cooling) will turn green.
• Bile ducts have not been cleanly removed:
Bitter taste; soak liver in water before processing. Adding LEBERFIT® will reduce the bitter taste.

Recipe creation

• Use of fat with excessive amounts of oil / lard: Very greasy and soft on cutting, despite proper amount of fat. Too little connective tissue in the fat content, thus fat deposits (fat deposits due to fat with excessive oil content, especially for coarse varieties). Unpleasant
fat taste in the final product.
• Recipe too low in fat / not enough connective tissue: Problems with consistency, i.e. crumbly, not spreadable (partly also due to insufficient water content), 30 – 35 % fat is considered normal; dark outside colour due to drying of the natural guts used as casings.
• Recipe too fat:Too soft, fat deposits (around 30 – 35 % fat). No intense curing red (not enough muscle colourant). Fatty taste and not enough meat flavour.
• Further problems due to wrong composition: Jelly deposits and too soft consistency due to excessive addition of broth. Strong liver taste (bitter aftertaste) or with higher-heated sausages burnt taste; dull gray-brown color due to excessive liver addition (max 25-30%).
Canned food should use less liver (about 20%) because of the increased heating. Insufficient quantities of liver have a negative influence on the stability of the emulsion; however, 15 – 20% are sufficient.
• Wrong mixing ratio between coarse and fine ingredients: Sausage not firm enough on cutting or uneven distribution of the inlays (quantity of fine ingredients too high); poor spreadability (quantity of fine ingredients too small).
• Wrong composition of spices and technological ingredients: Strong bitter taste because debittering agents (LEBERFIT® or KRISTALLUT®) were not used; fat deposits because
no emulsifier (OPTIMIX®) was used. One predominant flavour due to seasoning not balanced. Balanced seasoning with MOGUNTIA seasoning preparations; bad colour retention; grey-greenish stains or grey-greenish core due to wrong dosage of colour stabilisers (FARBFEST®).
• Natural guts / casings not stored, cleaned or degreased appropriately: Deviations in taste and microbiological deficiencies on the outside, poor colour retention on the outside (Tip: Use a FRISCHIN® liquid solution to clean up natural casings).

Precooking

• Precooked too much / material overcooked (core temperature above 65°C): Soft, often strawy texture; unclear cut through unstable inlay material. Liver scalded, thus poor binding or emulsifying ability, therefore deposits and consistency deficiencies (at times with fat deposits).
• Precooked too little / material undercooked: Jelly depostis due to undercooked lean meat; hygienic risk, danger of souring and greening.

Cutter process

• The pre-emulsion was not built up correctly before the liver was added / the liver was too hot (liver protein scalded) / too little broth poured: fat deposits under the intestine.
• Cutting went on for too long or was too cold (min. 40°C) / overcutting: Fat deposits under the gut / casing or fat puddles in the sausage meat; occasionally jelly deposits.
• The order Lean Meat Emulsifier (OPTIMIX®) – fat – broth – liver was not observed (see flow chart): Sausage gritty; the desired degree of fineness was not achieved.
• Wrong choice of mincing size for coarse liver sausage: The mincing of the liver and the rind should be as high as possible that of the heated tissue only as strong as necessary, otherwise it can lead to fat or jelly deposits.

Filling and cooking

• Filled at excessively cold temperatures (< 35°C): Fat puddles and fat deposits under the gut due to excessive demands on the sausage meat and due to the breaking up of the emulsion.
• Excessively long standing times between filling and cooking: Grey-greenish core; lactobacilli cause souring.
• Cooking time too short / Core temperature too low (min. 72 – 75°C) / cooling too slow: Souring and greening, especially in the core; the curing red colouring is not stable, at times also reddish core with types of sausages that were produced with cooking salt (activity of microorganisms).
• Cooking time too long / excessive heating: Fat or jelly deposits (also fat puddles due to broken emulsion); burnt taste; gritty, dry consistency. Therefore do not heat tinned food more than 112°C.

Aftercare cooling and smoking

• Cooling too slow/ not strong enough; smoking sausage that is too warm or smoking at excessively high temperatures: Musty, deviant or sour taste; product remains too soft ever after cooling.
• Soaking too for long or in water that is too cold: Grey rim; if soaked too long also loss of flavour.
• Insufficient drying before smoking: Final products have stains or in the case of excessive smoke products are too dark; yellow colouring and sharp taste.
• Cold chain interrupted / stored too warm: Slightly musty smell, no fresh taste, slimy outer surface, bad colour retention.

Liver sausage & compounds

Liver sausages have a variety of flavours that is rivalled by hardly any other sausage. The taste is often determined by regional influences. While light spices like pepper, ginger, mace and vanilla dominate with fine liver sausage varieties, the attraction of coarse liver sausages lies in the strong flavours of black pepper, marjoram, nutmeg and onions.
In fine liver pâtés and terrines, made of beef and pork, as well as game and poultry, „warm“ spices such as cardamom,allspice and cinnamon are mainly used.

Liverwurst spices are individualists and cannot be summarized in series. ZWIEBLING® has long since become a classic in Germany. The full spicy onion herbal note pleases both young and old customers. ZWIEBLING® exists with classic umami, as variation without glutamate and as a compound with emulsifier and reddening aid.

With ELIDEX® MOGUNTIA offers a seasoning for a fine delicatessen or veal liver sausage that many competitors in the spice industry consider the benchmark. The unique spice composition with fine vanilla gives the liver sausage a particularly mild flavour and make the bitter compounds contained in the liver fade into the background. The seasoning
is also the basis for many creamy pâtés.

PERLET® ELIDEX® is the only complete product in granules and also one of the few compounds for liver sausage that combines cake technology with meat technology.
The emulsion process is based on the pelletizing system of soups and sauces; the flavour is produced by ELIDEX®. This means that the product can be very natural without the addition of fatty acids such as mono- and diglycerides. In addition, flavor enhancers, liver debittering compounds and reddening agents are already incorporated.

Black pudding

Problems • Causes • Solutions

We call black pudding those cooked sausages whose cut when cooled depends on rind mash or a coherent mixture of heated blood protein. Black pudding can be produced with or without inlay. Here we introduce possible dangers and mistakes in the manufacturing process and how to avoid them.

Choice of raw materials

For the raw materials basically the same conditions apply as with the liver sausages. Furthermore, the blood used and the rinds must be extremely fresh in order to produce optimal products.
• Presalting of blood, use of ascorbic acid products before processing: A reaction of the nitrite salt results in a darker color and possibly also deviations in the taste of the final product.

Recipe creation

• Too many rinds have been used (Rule of thumb: 55 % rinds, 30 % broth, 15 % blood), too few inlays: Final product rubbery. Part of the rinds can be substituted by broth of by up to 5% of liver.
• The ratio between inlay and rind mash is not right / the rind mash is too liquid: Uneven distribution of the coarse inlay. Inlay falls out when there are too many big pieces.
• Too much blood, no broth added: The outside colour is too dark, the cut grey-black (especially with tinned food); cut looks dull (a lowering of the pH-value by using FRISCHIN® contributes to improving the colouring).
• Use of wrong spices, spices not coordinated: Unbalanced taste due to use of raw spices that don’t harmonize (use MOGUNTIA preparations); stains and dark colouring of cut due to excessive use of leafy spices.

precooking/preparation

• Bacon not adequately scalded: Bacon takes on a red colour; lumps of bacon in the final product.
• Raw material not cooked enough: Jelly deposit between lean meat and rind mash (lean meat undercooked). Gritty, rouch consistency of the rind mash (rinds undercooked).
• Cooking time too long: Unclear cut due to inlay material cooked too soft. Consistency too soft due to overcooked rinds (core temperature with meat should be around 65°C).

Production technology

• Addition of blood at a temperature above 55°C, blood-rind mash not mixed long enough in the cutter, or rind mash too liquid (no oxygen stirred into the blood): Dark cut, dark outside colouring.
• Filling too cold, mixing of blood-rind mash and inlay takes when temperatures are too cold:
Irregular cut (inlay material unevenly distributed), possibly holes in the final product.
• Excessively long standing times between filling and cooking: / cooking time too short, core temperature too low:
• Bacon cubes take on a red colour; taste deviation due to bacterial activity; product becomes soft.
• Sausage/ final product soaked in water for too long: Loss of seasoning and meat flavour. The sausage doesn’t dry evenly and gets stains (especially after smoking). Sausage must still be able to dry by itself.

Storage

• Not cooled appropriately / not cooled enough: Loss of freshness and deviations in taste. The surface of the sausage gets slimy.
• Humidity too low: If drying is not desired, the residual moisture should not fall below 85%, dehydration at the edges.

Black pudding spices & compounds

Black pudding belong to the underdogs among sausages, however they have a specialty status in some regions and not only in Germany. What almost all blood sausages have in common is the spicy clove flavour. It is practically the trademark. Depending on the taste, the clove flavour is stronger or weaker, but it complements perfectly with the ferro-note (iron
taste) of the blood. The taste is complemented by fruity pepper and regional characteristics such as marjoram, allspice, coriander or ginger. In some regions, onions, cumin or cinnamon are also used. Due to their strong spiciness, blood sausages can be prepared very well without any flavor-enhancing additives and thus, more than any other sausage, they correspond to the zeitgeist.

Brawn

Problems • Causes • Solutions

Jellied brawn are those boiled sausages whose ability to be cut in a cooled state is created by a solidified gelatinous mass (aspic or rind mash). This definition covers the entire range of aspic products. Here we introduce possible dangers and mistakes in the manufacturing process and how to avoid them.

Choice of raw materials

For the raw materials basically the same conditions apply as with the liver sausages and black pudding. Rinds, meat and fat as well as other materials used should be processed as freshly as possible.

Recipe creation

• The ratio between inlay material and gelatinous mass is not right: Uneven distribution of the inlay (too much jelly); sausage disintegrates when cut. (proportion of inlay too high; guideline: 2/3 inlay).
• Use of jelly with bad gelling properties (low bloom number): Sausage disintegrates when cut; lack of bite, consistency too soft. Therefore use MOGUNTIA jelly products that have a high bloom number.
• Too much blood, no broth added: Outside colour too dark, greyish-black colour when cut (especially with tinned products); cut looks dull (a lowering of the pH-value by using FRISCHIN® contributes to improving the colouring).
• Spices used are too coarse/ raw spices used: Spices disintegrate: taste uneven / unbalanced (use complete products like SülzLING® or MOGUNTIA Würz- Aspic).
• Too much vinegar used: Product is too sour; product is too soft.

precooking/preparation

• Material precooked too much: Rinds and therefore also the gelatinous mass lose connective power the longer they are cooked; loss of flavour too high.
• Material not cooked enough: Brawn that has been produced with a proportion of rinds, develops a gritty consistency
• Coarse inlay has not been rinsed in clear hot water (in the case of clear aspic): Aspic turns cloudy.

Production technology

• Mixing of gelatinous solution and meat at excessively high temperatures: There can be a discharge of fat, which leads to clouding of the aspic
• Not heated enough/ cooling neglected: Taste negatively affected, freshness is lost; worst case scenario softening of the gelatinous mass through bacteria.
• Heated too much: Consistency of the aspic changes (becomes softer); flavour is lost.
• Shaking during setting (transport) / sudden cooling: Aspic looses firm consistency.

Brawn spices & compounds

Brawn is a meat product that derives its strength from the connective tissue of gelatin. It is available in many different varieties, spicy or sour, clear or cloudy. Most types belong to the lean sausage varieties due to the different inlays.
The variety is also reflected in the different spices and compounds. For clear brawn, such as the SülzLING®, the ham or poultry brawn, the vegetable jellies and the Prinzenschmaus- brawn we prefer a sweet and sour flavour with spice extracts that usually already contained in the aspic. With the pressack (a type of Franconian brawn), the
farmers’ brawn and the cooked mettwursts spice preparations are preferable. Here the jelly comes mostly from the rinds contained.

Dictionary of ingredients boiled sausage

Aroma/flavouring

Aromas can be used to achieve the desired flavour without presenting a microbiological risk. For example, fresh onions are burdened with a high number of germs (lactobacilli) and can thus lead to hyperacidity of the liver sausage. In addition, these are used, for example, in black pudding to obtain a brightly coloured mash of blood and rind. In the case of
brawn, the aromas prevent unwanted deposits of raw spices.

Liver debittering agent (LEBERFIT®)

These combinations of active ingredients soften the natural bitter taste of liver or frozen liver through the use of aromas and sugars. The reddening is supported by ascorbic acid.

Emulsifier for liver sausage (OPTIMIX®)

An emulsifier enables two substances that are hard to mix together (for example fat and water) to be connected in such a way, that a mixture once achieved (emulsion in the cutter) remains stable even after the scalding process.

Standardised gelatine products

These products guarantee a product standardized in firmness and taste. The solid firmness (bloom number) of high quality products results in a safe end product (e.g., firm consistency when cut).

Emulsifiers for boiled sausages

Emulsifiers like mono- and diglycerides are used for cooked sausage and boiled sausage to support emulsion and are active in combination with the protein contained or in conjunction with cutter processing aids.
On the other hand, vegetable-based protein and fiber preparations (SAFTEX® group) can also emulsify without meat protein. These are used for the production of pre-emulsions.

OPTIPRALL®
Gives extra binding to the boiled sausage. The emulsifiers are the icing on the cake. They give extra security and ensure the perfect bite.

Redding and colour for reddened meat products

In a classic boiled sausage, with the exception of the „white products“, the consumer expects a red pickle color. Conventionally, this is formed by the pickling process with the decomposition product nitrogen oxide from the nitrite pickling salt. To accelerate the pickling process, the antioxidant ascorbic acid and its derivatives are used.
These products are called reddening aids. At MOGUNTIA we know of two classes of reddening aids.

FARBFEST®
products are based on ascorbic acid and accelerate nitrate removal. Some of them are also combined with citric acid and other auxiliary agents to improve their effectiveness.

FARBFEST Rubin®
products on the other hand contain the salt of ascorbic acid and have a moderate rate of nitrite degradation. This is especially important in the pre-curing of meat to prevent deflagration of the nitrogen oxide.

RUBINAL®
For the extra color of reddened sausages. This gives the sausage the attractiveness and color stability it deserves. Even in strong light, the sausage retains its beautiful red color.

Emulsions and protein substitutes

Emulsions, or more specifically, preemulsions, are used to put processing materials and foodstuffs into a state that makes production possible. As a result, it is also possible to prepare vegetable fat and protein substances, and also those in non-conventional animal form (for example flare fat and kidney fat), in such a way that they correspond to processability similar to that of a common bacon material. The same applies to animal and vegetable proteins.

SAFTEX®
represents the group of functional saccharides. From monosaccharides (dextrose) to polysaccharides (fiber and fibers). Depending on the application, these products can be used for the pre-emulsion, as synarase blocker, to give structure, for fiber enrichment or to increase the water binding capacity.

Fatbinder
This, in contrast, offers the perfect basis for all types of pre-emulsions, in particular meat, chicken skin and fat emulsions and for the production of fat and meat substitutes.

Freshness extenders for meat and meat cuts

Despite all care, compliance with hygiene standards and a continuous cold chain, it is not possible to prevent the contamination of the meat with germs. That is why MOGUNTIA has developed the FRISCHIN® range. By using the FRISCHIN® products, the user has advantages throughout the entire product range.

FRISCHIN®
Due to its specific composition, FRISCHIN® inhibits the growth of undesirable microorganisms over a prolonged period. Prolonged freshness and shelf life are the result. Due to its composition of natural edible acids, FRISCHIN® rounds off the fresh taste of your sausages and significantly improves colour retention.

Flavour enhancers for an even better taste
Flavour enhancers for an even better taste

Flavour enhancers are the feng shui of meat processing. They create the harmony of taste without appearing dominant themselves.
Flavour enhancers
• give a full and rounded taste
• create a harmonic taste profile
• make you use less salt
• shape the taste profile (by complementing with smoke (SMOOX®), garlic and other flavours)
• conceal foreign influences, for example in the processing of MDM meat or emulsions.

GLUTESSA®
Combines all flavour enhancers based on monosodium glutamate. For a perfect taste.

AROSTAR®
Flavour enhancer without glutamate. For best taste with highest naturalness.